Nosebleeds are very common among children and many start spontaneously. Unless they are a direct result of an impact to the nose, the cause may not be known. Simple treatment whereby the blood is encouraged to clot is usually effective. The priority is to protect the victim’s airway and to try and prevent blood from being swallowed.
HOW TO TREAT NOSEBLEEDS
1. Lean the child forward and encourage her to spit blood into a handkerchief or some other receptacle.
2. Pinch the child’s nose just below the hard part at its top to and apply firm pressure for 10 minutes (this is the amount of time it takes for a clot to form). If the bleeding has not stopped after 10 minutes, apply pressure for two further periods of 10 minutes. If bleeding continues then take the child to hospital.
3. Once the bleeding has stopped, advise the child not to scratch, pick, or blow her nose, not to drink hot liquid, and not to exert herself, because all these activities can dislodge the clot and cause the bleeding to start again.
Treating Minor Wounds
Wash your hands before treating the wound. Check that there is nothing in the wound. If the wound is dirty, clean it under running water. Pat dry with clean cloth. Clean the wound from the center out with gauze swabs or antiseptic wipes, using a fresh piece for each wipe. Cover the wound with an adhesive dressing to apply pressure and protect from infection. Elevate the wound if necessary to help control bleeding.
Check there is nothing embedded in the wound and cleans and dry it.
Clean wound with antiseptic wipes or swabs, apply povidone-iodine, then cover it with a dressing for protection and to apply pressure.
Raise the wound if necessary to reduce blood flow to the affected area.
Dog bites or cat bites or any animal bite requires medical attention. Deep bites can cause serious wounds, severe bleeding, and tissue damage, while all animal bites can cause infection. Puncture wounds from teeth carry infection deep into the tissue, whiles scratches are also an infection risk. The human bite is among the most infectious.
CHECKING FOR INFECTION
Warn the injured person to watch for signs of an infected wound over the coming days. Seek immediate medical attention if any combination of the following signs and symptoms develops:
Redness around the site of the wound
Discharge from the site
Unpleasant smell from the site of the wound
Red tracks from the site of the wound to the heart
The priority is to ensure the safety of yourself and bystanders. If the animal is still a risk, do not approach it but call the local Animal Control Service through your police department or Barangay
For serious wounds
Help the injured person sit down to help reduce shock.
Treat any bleeding by:
Looking in the wound
Applying direct pressure
Elevating the site if it is a limb
Take or send the person to hospital.
For smaller wounds and scratches
Wash the wounds thoroughly with soap and water.
Dry the wound with clean gauze or other non-fluffy material and cover with a dressing.
Seek medical advice.
Vomitting and Diarrhea
Elderly and children are more vulnerable to the accompanying risk of dehydration. The loss of circulating body fluid can lead to life-threatening shock if it not replaced.
Likely causes of vomiting and diarrhea include: food poisoning; viral infection such as gastroenteritis; and sensitivity to a new or unusual food. Vomiting alone can also accompany some medical conditions such as concussion and compression and other injuries.
Check the person’s recent history for clues as to the cause and to rule out underlying injury such as a serious blow to the head.
Help the person into a comfortable position. If he is vomiting, this will usually be sitting up. Help the person to the bathroom as necessary.
Help the person to clean himself up and change clothes as necessary.
Provide bland fluids (except milk) to drink slowly—it is important to keep fluid levels up. Give him/her ISOTONIC DRINKS -These drinks replace vital fluids and important minerals and sugars in the body. Available to purchase ready made, or you can also make your own.
1 tsp salt and
5 tsp sugar
Per 2 pints of water or diluted orange juice
This drink should be taken in short sips as needed.
Seek medical advice if the condition persists. If the person shows signs of shock, seek urgent medical attention.
Foreign Body In The Eye Or Ear
On The Pupil or Embedded in The White of The Eye
NEVER try to remove the object.
1. Cover the injured eye with a clean pad.
2. Bandage both eyes.
3. Take the victim to the hospital.
Floating on The White of The Eye
1. Advise the victim not to rub his/her eye.
2. Ask him/her to sit down facing a light, so that you will be able to see into the
3. Using your finger and thumb, gently pull the eyelids of the injured eye apart.
4. When you see the foreign body causing the irritation, wash it out with clean water (sterile if available) using a glass. 5. If the foreign body has not moved, try to lift if off with a moist swab, or the dampened corner of a tissue or handkerchief.
Under The Eyelid
1. Pull the upper lid over the lower one.
2. The victim may also be able to dislodge the object by blinking under the water.
Corrosive Chemicals in The Eye
1. Quickly wash out chemicals or corrosive splashed in the eye by holding the victim's face under a flow of running water for atleast 10 minutes.
2. Tilt the head with the injured side downwards so that the chemical is not washed over the uninjured eye.
3. Keep the eye lids apart with the fingers.
4. If necessary, cover the eye with a pad and get him/her to the hospital.
If the foreign body is lodged in place, DO NOT attempt the move it (object may be
pushed further in).
1. Sit the victim down.
2. Gently pour tepid water into the ear until it floods, carrying the object out.
3. If this does nto work, take him/her to the hospital.
Fractures And Dislocations
Fractures- a fracture is a broken or cracked bone.
1. Pain and tenderness.
2. Difficulty in moving and breathing.
3. Swilling or bruising.
4. Discolonation of the skin.
Does not pierce through the skin. If it is not cared for properly, it could become a
Pierces through the skin. Serious bleeding may occur with this kind of wound.
Do not apply pressure to a compound fracture to stop the bleeding.
1. Treat any bleeding (see Severe Bleeding, Wounds, and Injuries). Move the victim as little as possible. (Movement may further displace broken bones and damage organs). Cover an open wound with a clean dressing.
2. For firmer support, secure the injured part to a sound part of a body. Fractured arms should always be supported against the body with a sling and a bandage, if needed.
3.Give nothing to eat or drink, because a general anaesthetic may be used when
the bones are set and eating may cause vomiting. Keep the person warm and
watch for signs of shock.
4. Contact a Doctor immediately.
A dislocation is a displacement of one or more bones at a joint and most
frequently happens at the shoulder, elbow, thump, finger or jaw.
2. Deformed look.
3. Pain and tenderness.
4. Possible dicoloration of the affected area.
DO NOT try to force back a dislocated joint yourself (this should only be done by a
1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving.
2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow bloodflow to the area.
3. A doctor should de contacted to have the bone set back into its socket.
Applying a Splint
1. If the victim can comfortably hold a broken arm across the chest, apply a splint and hold it in this position with a sting.
2. If the arm cannot be bent, splint it in the straight position and secure it to the side of the body.
3. Tie the splint in place above and below the break.
4. Support the forearm with a wide sling tied around the neck, so the fingers are slightly higher than the elbow.
Splinting Injured Leg To Uninjured Leg
1. Put padding between the legs and splint the broken leg to unbroken leg, using
broad bands of cloth (bandages, ties, scarves or belts).
2. Tie the knots above and below the break on the side of the good limp.
Keep safe everyone!